Would a rainbow cichlid be an appropriate choice for my tank? I'm seeing that they're relatively peaceful for Central American cichlids. I would probably keep just 1.If it was a parasite the only ways of getting rid of that is running the tank without fish for a while (2-4 weeks without a host and most parasites are done for) or medicating the fish still present.
Indeed they are.
For hard water the best choices are fish from Central America, East Africa, Myanmar/northern Thailand, the Middle East and Europe.